Nozzles. Origin and Functional Classification
The nozzle is the part from which sprayed water exits and is shaped to achieve a particular aesthetic effect. It is therefore the key player in a water feature fountain as it is responsible for propelling large volumes of water into the air. The origin of the nozzle lies in the pipe-end, which in principle is basically the short tube through which water flows into a fountain. Prior to the pipe-end, the actual pipe protruded from the ground or wall to discharge water but for beauty and functional reasons, an extra part was added – the pipe-end - which was fitted on the end of the pipe. Designed with mythological (griffon), zoomorphic or merely geometric figures, pipe-ends were an ornamental part of fountains.Read More
When pipe-ends started to evolve to produce more sophisticated water forms, they changed their name and became known as spouts. So now we have spouts with one or more jets or fan shaped discharges. After that, the name nozzle appeared, so designated by certain manufacturers which finally evolved towards the newly designed water feature nozzles that offer a great diversity of effects and shapes.
In view of the wide range of nozzles on the market, it is best to classify them by their internal mechanisms - functional classification - or by the shape the water running through them forms, this is known as formal classification.
According to their internal workings, nozzles can be classified as:
- 1.- Solid jet nozzle: Historically, this was the first nozzle and consists of a pipe, through which water runs out under certain pressure. With just a few small changes inside the nozzle, its performance can be substantially improved.
- 2.- Water-drawing nozzle: based on the Venturi effect, this nozzle uses the speed of the propelled water to draw water from the basin, which, when mixed with the initial stream, forms a much larger body of water than the initial one.
- 3.- Air-suction nozzle: this nozzle is based on the same principle as the previous one but thanks to its special design, draws air instead of water from the basin. This air mixture produces a very foamy effect in the water.
- 4.- Water-drawing and air-suction nozzle: This nozzle achieves the effect of the two previous nozzles by drawing air and water from the fountain basin. It produces a very frothy effect in the water jets and greater consistency against wind, thereby making it an attractive option for outdoor water features.
- 5.- Laminar effect nozzle: Thanks to its special design, this nozzle sprays a wall or sheet of water in a certain shape. These nozzles have a device at the top end which is responsible for forming the desired shape in each case.
- 6.- Spraying Jet Nozzle: An internal helical device rotates the water harshly so that it is discharged as a spray, forming a cloud of highly plastic cloud.
- 7.- Dynamic nozzle: Equipped with a hydraulic spindle, this nozzle rotates during operation to produce oscillating effects that can create an interactive play fountain, differentiating it from the models described above.
- 8.- Vortex nozzle: This nozzle works differently from all the previous ones in that it is coupled directly to the output of a watertight motor and requires no hydraulic installation.
- 9.- Special effect nozzles: Thanks to special designs, one can produce a multitude of features (parabolic domes, warped surfaces, revolving surfaces, etc. ...) with incredible shapes and effects.
The inner workings of the nozzle determine the appearance it has on discharge (crystalline or frothy jets, misty spray, etc.) and the shape it produces (cylindrical, conical, spherical, fan-shaped, etc…).
In order to produce the different effects, it is very important for the water to have the right hydraulic regime (laminar, turbulent or transition) and in subsequent posts on this blog, we will look at how to achieve that.